Indigenous Education

Indigenous Education

Indigenous education Online Education
situated in a specific community accessible across multiple communities
highly contextual very low context
experiential, holistic, personal, orally transmitted, narrative, metaphor technologically mediated, therefore difficult to align w/ Indigenous education

(Tessaro et al, 2017)

5Rs of Indigenous Education

  • respect
  • reciprocity
  • relevance
  • responsibility
  • relationships

    (Tessaro, et al, 2017)

Learning is connected to land, culture, and spirit.

We—the two-legged, four-legged, finned and feathered, plants and rocks —are all related. We must always practice reciprocity through acts of giving and receiving.

Learning honours our Ancestors, Elders, Knowledge Keepers and Descendents.

It respects and embraces ceremony, protocol, and teachings that are connected to the sacred medicines including tobacco, cedar, sage, and sweetgrass. Important teachings emerge through stories.

Learning involves developing relationships, respecting distinct cultures, and honouring the perspective of others in our communities.

The deepest learning takes place through lived experience. It requires exploring our identities, learning from our mistakes, and having gratitude for our gifts.

Learning is a journey that takes courage, patience and humility.

It is about striving to become a better human being and living with balance in body, mind, heart and spirit.

(“Aboriginal Ways of Knowing and Being,” 2017)


Aboriginal Ways of Knowing and Being. (2017). BCTF. Retrieved from

Tessaro, D., Restoule, J.-P., Gaviria, P., Flessa, J., Lindeman, C., & Scully-Stewart, C. (2018). The Five R’s for Indigenizing Online Learning: A Case Study of the First Nations Schools’ Principals Course. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 40(1), 125–143.

Research Questions Chapter 2